Pronunciation and Translation of Scientific Latin Names - Shrubs Trees (2023)

Last Updated on Mon, 22 Aug 2022 | Shrubs Trees

(All words are of Latin origin unless otherwise noted)

Abies: AY-beez [AY-bih-eez; A-bih-eez], The silver fir tree.

-aceae: -AY-see-ee. Ending added to the name of the type genus to form the family name; as Rosaceae from Rosa. Acer: AY-ser [A-ser]. The maple tree. The word is perhaps related to "sharp", "pointed" or "cutting" in reference to the hardness and firmness of the wood which • the Romans used for spears. Aceraceae: ay-suh-RAY-see-ee [a-suh-RAY-see-ee]. The maple family. acerosa: a-seh-ROH-suh. Needle-shaped; needlelike. acuminata: a-kew-mih-NAY-tuh. Tapering to a point; acuminate. Alnus: AL-nuss. The alder tree. "Alder" comes from Old English alor, aler with phonetic "d" added.

Amelanchier: a-meh-LAN-kih-err. A French name for a related plant, the medlar-tree whose fruit was eaten when decayed. americana: uh-meh-rih-KAY-nuh. Of or from America.

Amorpha: uh-MOR-fuh. Of indefinite form; shapeless; referring to the absence of 4 of the 5 petals. [Greek]. amygdaloides: uh-mig-duh-LOY-deez [a-mig-duh-loh-EYE-deez], Almond- or peachlike, referring to the leaves. Anacard/aceae. a-nuh-kar-dih-AY-see-ee. Greek: the cashew (sumac) family, from the heartlike shape of the top of the fruit stem of the cashew. angustifolia(-um): an-gus-tih-FOH-lih-uh(-um). Narrow- or slender-leaved. anomala: uh-NAH-muh-luh. Unusual; abnormal; irregular; inconsistent; deviating from the common type; anomalous. Arbutus: are-BEW-tuss. The European strawberry-tree (arbute). Arctostaphylos: ark-toh-STAFF-ih-los. Greek for bear and grape cluster, as bears feed on the clustered berries. argentea: are-JEN-teh-uh. Silvery; silvered.

aristata: a-riss-TAY-tuh. Provided with awns; bristly; bearded; aristate; in reference to the long slender prickles on the cone scales of the bristlecone pine. arizonica: a-rih-ZOH-nih-kuh. Of or from Arizona.

Artemisia: are-teh-MEE-sih-uh [are-teh-MIH-sih-uh], In honor of the sister and wife of Mausolus, king of Caria. Artemisia was known as a botanist and medical researcher, having discovered and named several herbs. She built a magnificent tomb (4th cent. B.C.) for her husband. It was known as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and brought the word "mausoleum" into our language. Atripiex: A-trih-pleks. The Greek name for orache, a species of this genus which can be used as spinach, but which is generally regarded as a weed. aureum: AW-reh-um. Golden [yellow], baccata: bak-KAY-tuh. Berrylike.

Baccharis: BAK-kuh-riss. Ancient Greek name for an unknown plant with a fragrant root yielding oil, supposed to be good against enchantments and transferred to this genus by Linnaeus.

bebbiana: BEBB-ih-AY-nuh Michael S. Bebb (1833-95), noted student of willows. Berberidaceae: ber-beh-rih-DAY-see-ee. The barberry family (See below). Berberis: BER-beh-riss. Latinized from an Arabic name for the fruit of the barberry. Betuia: BEH-tyew-luh [BEH-tuh-luh], The birch tree. Betuiaceae: beh-tyew-LAY-see-ee [beh-tuh-LAY-see-ee]. The birch family. betuiaefoiia: beh-tyew-lee-FOH-lih-uh [beh-tuh-lee-FOH-lih-uh]. Birchleaved.

betuloides: beh-tyew-LOY-deez [beh-tyew-loh-EYE-deez]. Birchlike. Bouvardia: boo-VAR-dih-uh. In honor of French physician to Louis XIII, Charles Bouvard (1572-1658), at one time superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Paris.

brandegei: BRAN-deh-gee-eye [bran-DEE-jee-eye], In honor of Townsend S. Brandegee (1843-1925), prominent western self-trained botanist and student of Mexican flora.

Brickellia: brik-KELL-lih-uh. In honor of Dr. John Brickell (1749-1809), Irish-American botanist and naturalist of Savannah, Georgia who published, in 1787, A Natural History of North Carolina. Cactaceae: kak-TAY-see-ee. Applied by the ancient Greeks to some prickly plant, kaktos, possibly the Spanish artichoke; adopted by Linnaeus for the cactus family. californica: kah-lih-FOR-nih-kuh. Of or from California. canescens: kuh-NESS-senz. Becoming grayish; hoary; gray-hairy; canescent. Caprifoliaceae: kap-rih-foh-lih-AY-see-ee. Goat [-hoofed?] -leaved. Ceanothus: see-uh-NOH-thuss. An obscure name, originally applied to a spiny plant, perhaps a thistle, but not this plant. Celastraceae: see-lass-TRAY-see-ee. An ancient Greek name for some evergreen shrub, perhaps holly or privet. Species name adopted for the bittersweet family. Also called burningbush or stafftree family. Celtis: SELL-tiss. Pliny's name for an African species of Lotus, transferred to this genus perhaps on account of the sweet berries. cembroides: sem-BROY-deez [sem-broh-EYE-deez], Like the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra).

Cephalanthus: seh-fuh-LAN-thuss. Greek for head-flower, as the flowers are in spherical heads.

Cercis: SUR-siss. Ancient Greek name for a kind of poplar; also, perhaps the Judastree of Europe and Asia. Cercocarpus: sur-koh-KAR-pus. Greek: shuttle-fruit, referring to its long-tailed fruit. Chamaebatiaria: kah-mee-bah-tih-AY-rih-uh. Greek: like Chamaebatia, the ground or creeping bramble.

Chenopodiaceae: keh-noh-poh-dih-AY-see-ee [key-noh-poh-dih-AY-see-ee], Greek for goose-foot, in reference to the shape of the leaves of members of this family. chihuahuana: chih-wah-wah-AY-nuh. Of or from Chihuahua, Mexico, where it was first discovered. It was first described by Dr. George Engelmann (See engelmannii) in 1848.

Chrysothamnus: krih-soh-THAM-nuss. Greek for golden-bush. Clematis: KLEH-muh-tiss [KLEE-ma-tiss], Ancient Greek for a climbing plant with long, lithe twigs or shoots, probably the periwinkle. Transferred by Linnaeus to the Clematis [occasionally klee-MA-tiss]. coerulea: see-REW-leh-uh. Deep blue; sky blue: azure; cerulean; in reference to the fruits. Originally the deep blue of the Mediterranean sky at midday. Coleogyne: koh-lee-AH-jih-nee. Greek: sheathed-ovary, referring to the tubular sheath which encloses the ovary. communis: kom-MEW-niss. Widespread; general; common. Compositae: kom-PAH-zih-tee. "To bring several together in a orderly manner;" composite; in reference to the florets which are arranged in dense heads that resemble single flowers. The composite or sunflower family. concolor: KON-kuh-luhr. Of the same color; uniform in color; of one color throughout;

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in reference to the needles of the white fir. confertifolia: kon-fer-tih-FOH-lih-uh. Crowded-leaves; leaves pressed close together;

densely leaved. contorta: kon-TOR-tuh. Twisted; bent; contorted.

Cornaceae: kor-NAV-see-ee. Dogwood family. (See next).

Cornus: KOR-nuss. The cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) of Europe, from the word for horny, in reference to the hardness of the wood in some species which was used for spears, shafts and javelins. Cowania: kow-WAY-nih-uh. In honor of James Cowan (d. 1823), early British merchant and amateur botanist who introduced many plants from Mexico and Peru into England.

Crataegus: kra-TEE-gus. Greek for a kind of thorny flowering shrub, possibly a holly, and perhaps related to the word for "strength," in reference to the hardness and toughness of the wood. Cupressus: kew-PRESS-suss. Latin and Greek for the Italian cypress. cuspidata: kuss-pih-DAY-tuh. Sharp; stiff-pointed; cuspidate; in reference to the leaf apex.

Dalea: DAY-leh-uh. In honor of Dr. Samuel Dale (1659-1739), English physician, botanist and author. demissa: duh-MISS-uh. Lowly; humble; drooping.

deppeana: DEPP-peh-AY-nuh [depp-peh-AY-nuh], In honor of Ferdinand Deppe (d. 1861), German botanist who had given this species a name previously used for another species.

douglasii: DUGLUSS-eye [duh-GLAH-sih-eye]. In honor of David B. Douglas (17981834), Scottish botanist and collector for the Royal Horticultural Society of London who spent several years collecting in Oregon. A squirrel was also named in his honor. (See also Garrya). drummondii: DRUM-mund-eye [drum-MUN-dih-eye]. In honor of Thomas Drummond (1780-1835), Scottish explorer and botanist in North America who first discovered it.

dumosa(-us): dew-MOH-suh(-us). Bushy; shrubby. edulis: EH-dyew-liss. Fit to eat; edible.

Elaeagnaceae: eh-lee-ag-NAY-see-ee. Elaeagnus family. (See next). Elaeagnus: eh-lee-AG-nuss. Greek for olive tree and chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus).

Agnus also translates "lamb," "pure," or "innocent." elata: ee-LAY-tuh. Tall or elevated.

emarginata: ee-mar-jih-NAY-tuh. Having a shallow notch at tip (emarginate), in reference to the petals and sepals. emoryi: EMORY-eye [eh-MORE-ee-eye]. In honor of Major (later Lt. Col.) William H. Emory (1811-1887), who collected many new specimens during his Military Reconnaissance of 1848. He later became director of the U. S.-Mexican Boundary Survey (1857-59).

engelmannii: ENGULL-mun-eye [en-gull-MUN-nih-eye]. In honor of Dr. George Engelmann (1809-1884), German-born botanist and researcher of St. Louis. He had an active medical practice, but also carried on botanical and meteorological work. Authority on dodder, cacti and grapes. He was one of the first physicians to use quinine as a specific against malaria. Ephedra: eh-FEH-druh [eh-FEE-druh], Greek for mare's-tail which it resembles. Ephedraceae: eh-feh-DRAY-see-ee [eh-fee-DRAY-see-ee]. Joint-fir family. (See above).

Ericaceae: eh-rih-KAY-see-ee. Latin and Greek for the heather family. Eriodictyon: eh-rih-oh-DICK-tee-on [ee-ree-oh-DICK-tee-on], Greek: woolly network, referring to the woolly, netted undersurfaces of the leaves. Eriogonum: eh-rih-AW-guh-num [ee-ree-AW-guh-num], Greek for woolly and knees, referring to the hairy nodes in some species. erythropoda: eh-rih-THRAH-puh-duh. Greek: reddish-footed, perhaps for the reddish leaf petioles.

Eurotia: yew-ROH-shuh [yew-ROH-tee-uh], Greek, in reference to the gray white, downy or moldy appearance. exigua: eks-IH-joo-uh [eks-IH-gew-uh]. Very small, short, insignificant in reference to the small-size leaves. Fagaceae: fay-GAY-see-ee. The beech family, from the word "to eat, in reference to the edible beechnuts. Fallugia: fal-LEW-jih-uh. In honor of Virgilio Falugi, an Italian abbot of Vallombrosa and a botanical writer.

Fendlera: FEND-lurr-uh. In honor of August Fendler (1813-1883), German-born naturalist and explorer who settled in the U.S. and was one of the first botanists to collect in Texas, New Mexico and Venezuela. Fendlerella: FEND-lurr-ell-uh [fen-dluh-RELL-uh], Little fendler plant. (See above). fendleri: FEND-lurr-eye [FEN-dluh-rye]. Of Fendler. (See Fendlera). filifolia: fih-lih-FOH-lih-uh. Threadlike (filiform) leaves.

flavescens: flay-VESS-senz. Becoming yellow; pale yellow; yellowish; in reference to the foliage.

flexilis: FLEKS-ih-liss. Pliable; supple; limber; flexible; in reference to the flexible branches of limber pine. Forestiera: faw-ress-tih-EH-ruh [faw-ress-tih-EE-ruh], In honor of Charles Le Forestier,

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18th century French physician and naturalist of Saint-Quentin. formosa: for-MOH-suh. Finely formed; handsome; beautiful; shapely; in reference to flowers.

Frankenia: FRANK-ee-nih-uh [fran-KEE-nih-uh]. Named by Linnaeus in honor of Johann Francke (latinized to Frankenius) (1590-1661), a Swedish professor of medicine at Uppsala who was the first to describe the plants of Sweden. Frankeniaceae: FRANK-ee-nih-AY-see-ee [fran-kee-nih-AY-see-ee], Frankenia family. (See above).

Fraxinus: FRAKS-ih-nuss. The ash tree. From Greek, to hedge or enclose, as the ash was formerly used for hedges. fremontii: FREE-mont-eye [free-MON-tih-eye]. In honor of John Charles Fremont (18131890), soldier, explorer and naturalist of western U. S. and one of the first two United States senators from California. He was the first botanist to collect in the Sierra Nevada on two expeditions to California, 1843-4 and 1845-7. From 1878 to 1882 he was governor of Arizona Territory. fruticosa: frew-tih-KOH-suh. Shrubby; shrublike; bushy.

gambelii: GAM-bull-eye [gam-BEH-lih-eye]. In honor of Dr. William Gambel (18191849), Philadelphia ornithologist and botanist who collected in the West in the 1840s. His name is also perpetuated in the name of the Gambel quail as well as in three other birds.

Garrya: GAIR-ree-uh. In honor of Nicholas Garry, secretary of the Hudson's Bay Company, friend of David Douglas (See douglasii), botanical explorer of the Pacific Northwest, 1825-32, who named this genus after his friend who assisted him greatly in his collecting. glaberrima: glah-BEHR-rih-muh. Very smooth; very glabrous. glabra(-um): GLAY-bruh(-um). Smooth, without hairs; glabrous. Glossopetalon: gloss-soh-PEH-tuh-lon. Greek: tonguelike petals. glutinosa: glew-tih-NOH-suh. Sticky; gluey; glutinous.

grandidentatum: gran-dih-den-TAY-tym. Large-toothed, referring to the leaf margins. grandiflora: gran-dih-FLOH-ruh. Large-flowered.

Grayia: GRAY-uh [GRAY-ih-uh], In honor of Asa Gray (1810-1888), professor of botany at the University of Michigan, and later professor of natural history at Harvard — a distinguished American botanist and early authority on western plants. A member of the Hall of Fame.

greggii: GREGG-eye [GREGG-gih-eye], In honor of Dr. Josiah Gregg (1806-1850), adventurer, trader and botanical explorer in northern Mexico and adjacent U. S. Author of Commerce of the Prairies a narrative about the Old Santa Fe Trail. grisea: GRIH-sih-uh. Pearl gray.

Gutierrezia: goo-tih-ehr-REE-zih-uh. In honor of Pedro Gutierrez, correspondent of the

Botanic Garden of Madrid, Spain. Haplopappus: ha-ploh-PAPP-pus. [Sometimes spelled Aplopappus]. Greek for single and down (pappus), in reference to the simple hairs on the seeds. Holodiscus: hah-loh-DISS-kuss. Greek: entire or undivided disk, as some related genera have lobed disks. Hydrophyllaceae: hye-droh-fill-LAY-see-ee. Greek: waterleaf family. The leaves of waterleaf supposedly catch rain and hold it in specialized cavities. hypoleucoides: hye-poh-lew-COY-deez [hye-poh-lew-coh-EYE-deez]. Greek: whitish beneath, in reference to the leaves. idaeus: eye-DEE-us. Of Mount Ida, highest peak in Crete, now called Mt. Psiloriti.

The infant Jupiter was raised here. imbricata: im-brih-KAY-tuh. Overlapping in regular order like tiles or shingles. incana: in-KAY-nuh. Quite gray; grayish white; hoary. inebrians: ih-NEE-brih-anz. Intoxicating.

inerme: ih-NURR-muh. Unarmed; without thorns, spines or prickles. integerrimus: in-teh-GEHR-rih-muss. Very whole; absolutely entire; very perfect;

unbroken; referring to the leaves. invoiucrata: in-voh-lew-KRAY-tuh. Provided with a group or whorl of bracts (involucre)

which envelop the base of the inflorescence. Jamesia: JAYMZ-ih-uh. [juh-MEE-zee-uh], In honor of Dr. Edwin James (1797-1861), physician-botanist-historian to Long's Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in 18191820. With two others, he made the first ascent of Pike's Peak. The genus is sometimes called by his first name, Edwinia. jamesii: JAYMZ-eye [juh-MEE-zee-eye]. (See above). Juglandaceae: joo-glan-DAY-see-ee. The walnut family. (See Juglans). Juglans: JOO-glanz. Jupiter's acorn [Jovis glans], Juniperus: joo-NIH-peh-russ. The juniper tree. [Originally iuniperus]. knowltonii: NOHL-tun-eye [nohl-TUN-ih-eye]. In honor of Frank H. Knowlton, distinguished paleobotanist with the U. S. Geological Survey who discovered this species of hophornbeam in the Grand Canyon. Labiatae: lay-bih-AY-tee. Having two unequal parts shaped like lips; labiate. The mint family.

lanata: luh-NAY-tuh. Woolly; woollike; flannellike; lanate. laricifolius: luh-rih-sih-FOH-lih-us. Larch-leaved. lasiocarpa: la-sih-oh-KAR-puh. Greek: shaggy-, hairy-, woolly fruited. latifolia: la-tih-FOH-lih-uh. Wide- or broad-leaved. ledifolius: lee-dih-FOH-lih-us. Leaves like Ledum, the Labrador tea. Leguminosae: leh-gew-mih-NOH-see. Pea or legume family, containing plants bearing pealike pods used as food. The original Latin meant "to gather or pick." leiophylla: lye-oh-FILL-luh. Greek: smooth-leaved. ieptanthum: lep-TAN-thum. Greek: slender-flowered.

ligusticifolia: lih-guss-tih-sih-FOH-lih-uh. Leaves like the Ligusticum, the lovage of our gardens.

Liliaceae: lih-lih-AY-see-ee. The classical Latin name (from Greek) for the lily family. longiflorus: lon-jih-FLOH-russ. Long-flowered. iongiiobus: lon-JIH-loh-buss. Long-lobed, in reference to the leaves. Lonicera: lah-NIH-seh-ruh. In honor of Adam Lonitzer (latinized to Lonicerus) (15281586), German physician and botanist (herbalist) who held the position of "pensioned naturalist" in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany for 32 years.

Lycium: LIH-sih-um. An ancient Greek name for a prickly shrub found growing in Lycia, an ancient region in Asia Minor (now applied to Turkey in Asia). Its juice and roots were used medicinally. macropetala: ma-kroh-PEH-tuh-luh. Large-petalled. major: MAY-johr. Refers to greater or larger size. melanocarpa: meh-la-noh-KAR-puh. Greek: very dark or black-fruited. Menodora: meh-noh-DOH-ruh. Greek: gift and force, in reference to the force or strength that it supposedly gave animals who ate it. menziesii: MEN-zeez-eye [men-ZEE-sih-eye]. In honor of Archibald Menzies (17541842), Scottish surgeon and naturalist who accompanied Vancouver on his expedition to the Pacific Northwest (1790-95). He collected, among other plants, the original specimen of Douglas-fir from Vancouver Island. microphylla(-us): mye-kroh-FILL-luh(-us). Little- or small-leaved. millefolium: mill-leh-FOH-lih-um. Thousand-leaved [i.e., many-leaved], monogynus: mah-NAH-jih-nuss. Greek: one-style. monophylla: mah-noh-FILL-luh. Greek: one-leaved [i.e., -needled]. monosperma: mah-noh-SPER-muh. Greek: one-seeded. montanus: mon-TAY-nuss. Growing on mountains; montane. montigenum: mon-TIH-jeh-num. Mountain-born, in reference to its mountainous habitat.

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Moraceae: moh-RAY-see-ee. The mulberry family. Morus: MOH-russ. The mulberry tree. myrsinites: murr-sih-NYE-teez. Greek: myrtlelike.

myrtillus: murr-TILL-luss. Little-myrtle, in reference to its small myrtlelike foliage; or perhaps in honor of Myrtillus, son of Mercury and a charioteer. nauseosus: naw-seh-OH-sus. L. & Gr.: ship-sickness; producing sickness; nauseating.

navajoa: na-vuh-HOH-uh. From the Navajo country; specifically, the Navajo Indian Reservation.

negundo: neh-GUN-doh. A Dravidian word for the Old World box elder (Vitex negundo). Dravidian is a language of India, Ceylon and West Pakistan with no established relationship to any other. neomexicana(-us): nee-oh-meks-ih-KAY-nuh(-us). Of or from New Mexico. occidentalis: ok-sih-den-TAY-liss. Of or from the West or western hemisphere. Oleaceae: oh-lee-AY-see-ee. The olive [oil] family.

Opuntia: oh-PUN-shuh [oh-PUN-tih-uh], A cactuslike plant "of Opus," an ancient city in Greece, but now applied to our prickly pear cacti. oreophilus: oh-reh-oh-FIH-luss. L. & Gr: mountain-loving.

Ostrya: OSS-trih-uh. L. & Gr. for some tree with very bony (hard) wood, perhaps the hornbeam.

Oxytenia: oks-ih-TEE-nih-uh. Sharp-pointed, referring to the leaves. Pachystima: puh-KISS-tih-muh. Greek: with a thick stigma. pallidum: PAL-lid-um. Rather-pale; pallid; gray green; yellow green. paradoxa: pa-ruh-DOK-suh. L. & Gr: contrary to belief or expectation; strange; contrary to type; unexpected; in reference to the paradoxical resemblance of the flowers of Apache-plume to a single, white rose. Parryella: PARRY-ella [pa-rih-ELL-luh], Diminutive parry, in honor of Dr. Charles C. Parry (1823-1890), English-born botanist and physician who collected for the U. S.-Mexican Boundary Survey, 1854-58. Parthenocissus: parr-theh-noh-SISS-suss. L. & Gr: virgin-ivy, of no known application. parviflorus: parr-vih-FLOH-russ. Small-flowered. patula: PA-tyew-luh. Spreading; broad; wide. pentandra: pen-TAN-druh. Greek: five-stamened.

Philadelphus: fih-luh-DELL-fuss. In honor of Egyptian King Ptolemy II (Philadelphia) (3097-246? B.C.), of no obvious application, but possibly because he did so much to beautify the cities of his kingdom. He was founder of the great Alexandrian library.

Physocarpus: fye-soh-KAR-puss. Greek: bladder or bellows fruit, in reference to its inflated (bladderlike) pods. Picea: PYE-see-uh. The pitch pine or spruce. [L. & Gr: made of pitch], Pinaceae: pye-NAY-see-ee. The pine family. pinetorum: pye-neh-TOH-rum. Of pine forests or groves. Pinus: PYE-ness. The pine tree.

Platanaceae: plah-tuh-NAY-see-ee. The sycamore or planetree family. Platanus: PLAH-tuh-nuss. The planetree. Related to Greek for broad or flat, in reference to the leaves. pluriflorus: plew-rih-FLOH-russ. Several-flowered; many-flowered. Poliomintha: poh-lih-oh-MIN-thuh. Grayish white (hoary) mint. Polygonaceae: poh-lih-goh-NAY-see-ee. Many-knees, from the numerous swollen stem joints. The buckwheat family. ponderosa: pon-deh-ROH-suh. Of great weight; heavy; massive; stately; ponderous. Name suggested in 1826 by David Douglas (for whom the Douglas-fir was named — see douglasii), because of its massive bulk. Populus: POP-pew-luss. The poplar [cottonwood] tree. Possibly from "people," from the number and continual motion of its leaves. Potentilla: poh-ten-TILL-luh. Somewhat powerful, in reference to its supposed medicinal properties. Prunus: PREW-nuss. The plum tree.

pseudoalpina: soo-doh-al-PYE-nuh. Greek: resembling, but not equaling and alpine; false-alpine.

Pseudotsuga: soo-doh-TSOO-guh. A curious combination of Greek and Japanese for false and hemlock.

Ptelea: TEE-lee-uh. Greek for the [wing-fruited] elm tree, because this genus has fruits like the elm. pungens: PUN-jenz. Sharp-pointed; prickly; pungent.

Purshia: PURSH-uh [PURR-shih-uh], In honor of Friedrick Pursh (originally Frederich T. Pursch) (1774-1820), botanist. He was born in Germany, but spent many years in North America and wrote the first complete flora (1814) of America north of Mexico based on the plants collected by the Lewis and Clark expedition. Curator of botanical gardens at Baltimore and New York. Quercus: KWUR-kuss. The oak tree, which was sacred to Jupiter. racemosa: ra-seh-MOH-suh. Bearing flowers in an elongated cluster (raceme). radicans: RA-dih-kanz. Having stems which take root. ramosissima: ra-moh-SISS-sih-muh. Very-much branched.

Ranunculaceae: ra-nun-kew-LAY-see-ee. Little frog [tadpole], suggesting the marshy habitat of the buttercup family. reflexa: reh-FLEKS-uh. Bent sharply backward; reflexed at more than 90°. repens: REE-penz. Creeping; prostrate and rooting.

reticulata: reh-tih-kew-LAY-tuh. Netted; net-veined; reticulate; as veins in leaves. Rhamnaceae: ram-NAY-see-ee. The buckthorn family. (See next). Rhamnus: RAM-nuss. An ancient Greek name for the buckthorn, akin to the Greek word for rod.

Rhus: RUSS. An ancient Greek and Latin name for the European smoke tree (Rhus cotinus): sumac(h).

Ribes: RYE-beez. An ancient name of uncertain origin, but probably Arabic for a plant with a sour sap. Related to Danish ribs and German Riebs, names for the currant._

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rivularis: rih-view-LAY-riss. Pertaining to a brooklet or rivulet, referring to a preference for moist banks of small streams. Robinia: roh-BIH-nih-uh. In honor of Jean Robin (1550-1629), herbalist to Henry IV of Navarre in French Pyrenees, and his son Vespasien (1579-1662), who first introduced the locust tree into Europe. Rosa: ROH-zuh. The rose bush. Rosaceae: roh-ZAY-see-ee. The rose family. rotundifolia(-us): roh-tun-dih-FOH-lih-uh(-us). Round-leaved. Rubiaceae: rew-bih-AY-see-ee. The madder family, from the Latin for red; madder;

from the use of the roots for making a moderately strong red dye. Rubus: REW-buss. The bramble bushes, but related to Latin for red. rupicola: rew-PIH-koh-luh. Rock-, cliff-, crag-dwelling. Rutaceae: rew-TAY-see-ee. The rue family, from both Latin and Greek. Salicaceae: say-lih-KAY-see-ee. The willow family. Salix: SAY-liks. The willow tree.

Sambucus: sam-BEW-kuss. An ancient Greek name for the elder because parts of a medieval stringed instrument [sambuke] were sometimes made from its wood. Sapindaceae: sa-pin-DAY-see-ee. The soapberry family. (See next). Sapindus: sa-PIN-duss. Latin for soap and India, referring to the use of its berries as soap in the West Indies. Saponaria: sa-poh-NAY-rih-uh. Soapy; soap-producing.

Sarcobatus: sar-koh-BAY-tuss. Greek: fleshy and thorny, with reference to its fleshy leaves and thorny stems. sargentii: SAR-jent-eye [sar-JEN-tih-eye]. In honor of Dr. Charles S. Sargent (18411927), American dendrologist and first director of the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard.

sarothrae: suh-ROH-three. Greek: broom, esp. one made of twigs. Saxifragaceae: saks-ih-fra-GAY-see-ee. The saxifrage family, from Latin, stone and break, as many species root in clefts of rocks. Saxifrage is considered by some to be a remedy for gall stones [Stone-breaker?]. scabra: SKAY-bruh. Rough; gritty; scurfy; scabrous; in reference to leaf surfaces. schottii: SHOTT-eye [SHOTT-tih-eye], In honor of Arthur Schott, American naturalist connected with various early government surveys. scopulorum: skaw-pew-LOH-rum. Of rocky places, cliffs or crags. scouleriana: SKOOLER-ih-AY-nuh [skoo-leh-rih-AY-nuh]. In honor of Dr. John Schouler (1804-1871), Scottish naturalist who collected in northwest United States, 1825-27.

Senecio: seh-NEE-sih-oh. Old-man, referring to the white hairlike pappus of many species.

sergiloides: ser-jih-LOY-deez [ser-jih-loh-EYE-deez], Like Sergilus, the old name for Baccharis.

Shepherdia: sheh-PURD-ih-uh. In honor of English botanist John Shepherd (17641836), former curator of the Liverpool Botanic Gardens. Solanaceae: soh-luh-NAY-see-ee. The nightshade (potato) family, perhaps related to Latin: solace or quieting, as some members of the family have narcotic properties, as belladonna. Sorbus: SOR-buss. The service-tree of Europe, or the mountain-ash. spartioides: spahr-tih-OY-deez [spahr-tih-oh-EYE-deez], Broomlike. spinescens: spye-NESS-senz. Slightly spiny; spinescent; thorny. Spiraea: spye-REE-uh. Greek: garland or wreath, for which some species may have been used.

stansburiana: STANZ-burr-ih-AY-nuh [stanz-buh-rih-AY-nuh], In honor of Capt. (later Major) Howard Stansbury (1806-1863), leader of the U. S. government's exploration to the Great Salt Lake area. He collected the first specimen of Cowania on Stansbury Island in the lake in 1852.

stolonifera: stoh-luh-NIH-feh-ruh. Producing runners that take root (stolons). strigosus: strih-GOH-suss [strye-GOH-suss], Having meager or few hairs; strigose. Symphoricarpos: sim-foh-rih-KAR-pus. Greek: fruit-borne-together, from theclus-red berries.

Tamaricaceae: ta-muh-rih-KAY-see-ee. The tamarisk family. (See below). Tamarix: TA-muh-riks. The tamarisk, possibly in reference to the Tamaris River in

Spain, along which it is reported to grow. tenuifolia: teh-nyew-ih-FOH-lih-uh. Thin-leaved.

Tetradymia: teh-truh-DIH-mih-uh [teh-truh-DYE-mih-uh], Greek: four-together, in reference to the four-flowered heads. thesioides: theh-sih-OY-deez [theh-sih-oh-EYE-deez], Greek: like Thesium, the bastard toadflax with which Theseus crowned Ariadne, his wife. torreyana: TORREY-ay-nuh [torr-ree-AY-nuh], In honor of Dr. (M.D.) John Torrey (1796-1873), emeritus professor of botany and chemistry at College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, authority on many groups of plants. He identified and named many plants for John C. Fremont. (See fremontii). tremuloides: treh-mew-LOY-deez [treh-mew-loh-EYE-deez], Resembling the European quaking aspen (Populus tremula) whose leaves tremble or quake. tridentata: trye-den-TAY-tuh. Three-toothed, in reference to the leaves. trifoliata: trye-foh-lih-AY-tuh. Three-leaved. trilobata: trye-loh-BAY-tuh. Three-lobed, referring to the leaves. turbinella: tur-bih-NELL-luh. Little-top(-shaped), referring to the acorns of the oak. Ulmaceae: ull-MAY-see-ee. The elm family, from Ulmus, the elm. umbellatum: um-bell-LAY-tum. Umbrellalike (clusters of flowers). undulata: un-dyew-LAY-tuh. Wavy(-edged), in reference to the leaves. utahensis: yew-taw-EN-siss. Of or from Utah.

uva-ursi: OO-vuh-URR-see [YEW-vuh-URR-sye]. Grape plus bear; bearberry. Vaccinium: vak-SIH-nih-um. The whortleberry, but the name is of disputed origin. Thought, by some, to have come from Latin "of or from cows," referring to their fondness for the plant; in fact, an Old World species is called "cowberry." velutina: veh-LYEW-tih-nuh. Velvety, in reference to the leaves. vermiculatus: verr-mih-kew-LAY-tuss. Worm-shaped, referring to the spiral seed embryos.

virginiana: verr-jih-nih-AY-nuh. Of or from Old Virginia which was much more extensive than the present-day Virginias. viridis: VIH-rih-diss. Green, in reference to the stems. viscidiflorus: viss-sih-dih-FLOH-russ. Sticky-flowered. vitacea: vye-TAY-see-uh. Vine- or grapelike. Vitaceae: vye-TAY-see-ee. The grape family. Vitis: VYE-tiss. The (grape) vine.

wislizenii: wiss-lih-ZEEN-eye [wiss-lih-ZEE-nih-eye]. In honor of Frederick A. Wislizen-us [VISS-lih-SAY-noos] (1810-1899), German-born physician and naturalist of St. Louis who collected in the 1840s and 1850s in the southwest and Mexico. wolfii: WOLF-eye [WOL-fih-eye], In honor of John Wolf (1820-1897), German-born field assistant with Wheeler's Expedition. He collected nearly all of the plants for the expedition in 1873. woodsii: WOODZ-eye [WOOD-zih-eye]. In honor of Joseph Woods (1776-1864),

English botanist and student of the roses. wrightii: RIGHT-eye [RIGHT-ih-eye]. In honor of Charles Wright (1811-1885), botanist in the Southwest in the 1840s and 1850s while a member of the U. S.-Mexican Boundary Survey.

Yucca: YUKK-kuh. The Carib name (yuca) for the root of the cassava plant from which tapioca is made, perhaps because the yucca of the Southwest also has similar large roots._

(Video) Botanical names and pronunciation

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What are Latin words for different trees? ›

Classical Latin plant names, sometimes transferred by modern botanists to other plants: Quercus (oak), Fagus (beech), Pinus (pine), Acer (maple), Cornus (dogwood), Rosa (rose), Lilium (lily), Malus (apple), Ilex (holly).

How do you pronounce scientific names in Latin? ›

Latin biological names in English speech are usually pronounced with English letter sounds. For example, virus is pronounced "vye-rus" in English, but would have been pronounced "weeros" in the Latin of ancient Rome.

How do you read a plant's scientific name? ›

The scientific names of plants are based on taxonomy, the science of defining groups of biological organisms. The first part of the name (always written in capital first letter) identifies the genus to which the species belongs, and the second part (written in small letters) identifies the species within the genus.

What is Latin word for plant? ›

Borrowed from Latin planta.

What is the Latin word for oak tree? ›

Quercus is Latin for “oak tree”. The Genus Quercus contains about 600 species of trees and shrubs (the “true” oaks) and is classified in the Family Fagaceae.

How do you translate a Latin name? ›

To change a female name to Latin, it takes just one letter. Add an “a” to the end of a female name. Jane would become Janea. This would be pronounced “Jay-nee-a.” For names such as Carly, Maddy or Mary, the letter “y” is turned into an “i,” and the “a” is added after that.

How is Latin pronounced 2? ›

The letters ii were pronounced as two i's in succession, forming two syllables. In a word that ended with ii – that is, a word with either a possessive or a plural Latin ending – the first i would be pronounced as in “sit” and the second as in “machine.”

What are the two Latin pronunciations? ›

Ignoring all of these minor variations, however, the two main pronunciation systems for Latin are classical (restored) and Christian. They are very similar. Christian Latin is closer to modern languages, is used in classical music and Christian prayers, and sounds more beautiful to modern ears.

Do you pronounce the G in Latin? ›

g before e, i, y, ae, oe is soft (as in gel): genitum (jeh-nee-toom); otherwise, g is hard (as in go): gaudeamus (gah-oo-deh-ah-moos). gn is pronounced ny: agnus (ah-nyoos).

How is u pronounced in Latin? ›

U: U in Latin is pronounced as in “rude” in English; e.g. “flūmen” and “sum.” Some of the Latin words given above as examples have special marks over them called macrons. A macron is a straight line over a vowel (ā, ē, ī, etc.)

What are the rules followed when naming a plant scientifically? ›

The binomial name consists of a genus name and specific epithet. The scientific names of species are italicized. The genus name is always capitalized and is written first; the specific epithet follows the genus name and is not capitalized. There is no exception to this.

Why are Latin names of plants italicized? ›

Abstract. It is common practice in scientific journals to print genus and species names in italics. This is not only historical as species names were traditionally derived from Greek or Latin. Importantly, it also facilitates the rapid recognition of genus and species names when skimming through manuscripts.

Why are scientific names of plants expressed in Latin? ›

Scientific names of plants are expressed in Latin because it is a international language and was used by early scholars to express plant names.

What is the Latin root for tree? ›

These two meanings come from two different roots: the wooden arch type of arbor comes from the Latin herba, "grass or herb," while the tree arbor comes directly from the Latin arbor. Simply enough, it means "tree."

What is the Latin root word for plant? ›

Another kind of plant is a factory or another business where goods are manufactured, and then there's the plant that means "spy or informer." The Latin root of plant is planta, "sprout or shoot," which may stem from plantare, "push into the ground with the feet," from planta, "sole of the foot."

How do you memorize Latin names for plants? ›

Many botanical Latin names can be broken down into smaller words that have associations. They might not have the exact spellings, but might be a soundalike. A couple of examples include: 'Cotton Easter' for Cotoneaster or 'Plait Annoy Dee's' for Acer platanoides.

What is the Latin word for pine? ›

The modern English name "pine" derives from Latin pinus, which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- 'resin' (source of English pituitary).

What is the Latin name of wood? ›

Sylva,-ae (s.f.I): woodland, forest, wood; 'silva,-ae (s.f.I)' is usual in classical Latin, 'sylva,-ae' in Bot.

What is the Latin word for maple? ›

Scientific Name: Acer saccharum. Common Name: Sugar Maple. Plant Family: Sapindaceae (Soapberry Family) Etymology: Acer is a Latin word meaning “sharp,” in reference to the tree's leaves.

What is the most accurate Latin translator? ›

DeepL Translate: The world's most accurate translator.

Is there a Latin translation app? ›

Latin Words is a Latin to English and English to Latin translator that is powered by the William Whitaker's Words database, a database of over 39,000 Latin words. This app has several key features that make it unique from other Latin translator apps on the App Store.

Is Google Translate accurate for Latin? ›

However, when you try and use Google Translate for Latin, the text becomes messy and difficult to read. While you can make sense of what is being said most of the time, Google Translate cannot give you an entirely accurate Latin translation.

How do you say 3 in Latin? ›

If you know your numbers from 1-100, I promise you'll impress your friends for many a Superbowl to come with your Roman numeral knowledge. Happy counting!
Latin Numbers 1-100 Posted by kunthra on Mar 24, 2010 in Latin Language.
NumberLatin numeralsPronunciation
113 more rows
Mar 24, 2010

What does ō mean in Latin? ›

The name of the Latin-script letter O.

Why do Latinos pronounce V as B? ›

The Problem of Homophones. Although the Latin b and v were pronounced differently, they gradually merged in Spanish. As a result, some words are spelled differently but have the same pronunciation.

What are 2 English words that are derived from Latin? ›

Some common English words are spelled exactly as they were in the Latin of Julius Caesar: area, focus, actor, index, forum, consensus, data, item, video, referendum. Many others have been adapted to English morphology, but still clearly reveal their classical origins.

What is 6 in Latin? ›

Cardinal numerals
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How are C's pronounced in Latin? ›

In English, the sound of soft ⟨c⟩ is /s/ (as in the first and final c's in "circumference"). There was no soft ⟨c⟩ in classical Latin, where it was always pronounced as /k/.

Is the H silent in Latin? ›

The H sound in Latin is very weak. It is in fact often silent. Some choirs learn to pronounce it as a K sound in words like Mihi, or Nihil, but we will not be learning that in this book. J does not make anything close to the sound that English J makes.

What is the J sound in Latin? ›

In Latin, the letter J is a modern typographical convention for the consonant form of I. The letter I in ancient times represented either a vowel or a consonant, see I for more information.

Why is there no V in Latin? ›

Anyways, the letter “V” in the original Latin alphabet stood for two sounds: the vowel /u/ and the semi-vowel /w/. In time, as Latin evolved into the modern Romance kanguages, the “V” pronounced as a semi-vowel slowly evolved into the consonant /β/, which sounds closer to the “v” sound in English.

What is e in Latin? ›

Latin epsilon or open E (majuscule: Ɛ, minuscule: ɛ) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet, based on the lowercase of the Greek letter epsilon (ε).

Do you say H in Latin? ›

Latin had an H sound that disappeared from its modern descendants (French, Italian, etc.), but because spelling is often conservative, in many European languages, H is written even though it isn't pronounced. This is also true of lots of other letters, especially in English and French.

How should plant species names be written? ›

The genus and species form the definitive name of a plant or animal. By convention: the genus is in italics and takes an initial capital. the species is in italics and is lower case.

What is the universal rule of nomenclature? ›

The universal rule of nomenclature is that “ The first word in a biological name represents the genus name, and the second is a specific epithet”.

What is the difference between variety and cultivar? ›

In short, a cultivar is a plant that is produced and maintained by horticulturists but does not produce true-to-seed; whereas, a variety is a group of plants within a species that has one or more distinguishing characteristics and usually produces true-to-seed.

Do you capitalize names of trees? ›

In general, lowercase the names of plants, but capitalize proper nouns or adjectives that occur in a name. Some examples: tree, fir, white fir, Douglas fir; Scotch pine; clover, white clover, white Dutch clover.

What are the rules for writing a species Latin name? ›

3.1. 1 Scientific names
  • Scientific names are always italicized. ...
  • The genus is always capitalized.
  • The species is never capitalized, even when it refers to the name of a place or person. ...
  • In its first use within a particular document, the genus is always written in full.

Do you italicize Latin scientific names? ›

A scientific name in Latin, such as Panthera tigris, will always be italicized, and its first word will be capitalized. Here, Panthera is used to denote the genus and tigris is used to indicate the species.

What are the two Latin or botanical names used to classify plants? ›

Genus and species

All plants have two main names, in Italics, which are the genus and the species, such as Rosa rugosa, Helleborus niger and Alchemilla mollis. The genus starts with a capital letter.

What is the Latin name of flower? ›

Flora is Latin in origin and means flower.

When did plants get Latin names? ›

​Carl von Linne a.k.a. Linnaeus came up with a system for naming in 1753 where each species of plant has a name which has two parts. This is called Binomial nomenclature. It's a a formal system of naming species of living things. Each of the two parts of the name used Latin grammatical forms.

What is the Roman word for trees? ›

Arbor, the Latin word for "tree," has been a rich source of tree-related words in English, though a few are fairly rare.

What is a fancy word for trees? ›

A woody perennial plant, typically having a single stem or trunk and bearing lateral branches. bush. sapling. shrub. conifer.

Do trees have Latin names? ›

In addition to the common names, all trees and plants are formally named using an internationally-agreed hierarchical structure based on Latin names, which has been in existence for several hundred years.

What are forest names in Latin? ›

Sylva,-ae (s.f.I): woodland, forest, wood; 'silva,-ae (s.f.I)' is usual in classical Latin, 'sylva,-ae' in Bot.

What is Greek tree? ›

Steve and Ed, also simply known as The Trees, are minor characters in Shrek 2 and supporting antagonists in Shrek the Third. They can disguise themselves as ordinary trees and they also use their leaves as a parachute. Ed was voiced by Andrew Birch, while Steve was voiced by Christopher Knights.

What are ancient trees called? ›

A veteran tree (also known as an ancient tree) is a tree of a great cultural, landscape or nature conservation value due its great age, size or condition.

What is another term for trees & bushes? ›

vegetation Add to list Share. Use the word vegetation to refer to all plants and trees collectively, typically those in a specific region. The vegetation in your backyard might look very lush and green in the springtime, unless you forget to water it.

What is a big tree called? ›

big tree in American English

noun. a large coniferous tree, Sequoiadendron giganteum (formerly Sequoia gigantea), of California, often reaching 300 ft. ( 91 m) in height, having reddish-brown bark, scalelike blue-green leaves, and bearing large elliptical cones. Also called: giant sequoia Compare sequoia.

What is a clump of trees called? ›

grove. noun. a group of trees of a particular type, especially trees arranged in lines.

Why are trees named in Latin? ›

The purpose of the Latin or botanical name of plants is to provide some information about a particular plant that distinguishes it from other plants. The adjective applied to the plant, the specific epithet, is often helpful in describing the plant.

What is the scientific name of shrubs? ›

Bushes and Shrubs Listed by Scientific, Botanical or Latin Name
Botanical, Latin or Scientific Shrub NameCommon Shrub NameColdest Zone
Betula (Shrub Growth Habit)Birch1
BuddlejaButterfly bush5
Buxus microphylla 'Winter Beauty'Japanese Boxwood6
101 more rows

Why do trees have Latin names? ›

Scientific Names

The Scientific Latin plant names help to reveal a plant's identity by first describing the genus and then the species. The system is referred to as binominal (having two names) and was developed in the 1700s by a Swedish naturalist called Carl Linnaeus.

What is an ancient forest called? ›

An old-growth forest, sometimes synonymous with primary forest, virgin forest, late seral forest, primeval forest, or first-growth forest—is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance, and thereby exhibits unique ecological features, and might be classified as a climax community.

What is the Latin root for forest? ›

Where does forest come from? The first records of the word forest come from the 1200s. It comes from the first part of the Late Latin phrase forestis silva, meaning “an unenclosed wooded area” (as opposed to a park). Forestis comes from the Latin forīs, meaning “outside” (the same word is the root of the word foreign).

What is Latin name for Sun? ›

Solis is Latin for sun. Sol is the Roman equivalent of the Greek sun god Helios.


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